Published Authors

Galleons and Galleys

by John F. Guilmartin

The turn of the 16th century saw the start of a revolution in sea warfare–one long in the making but, once begun, remarkably swift. The driving force: gunpowder. The principal agents: galleys (long, low boats propelled principally by oars) and galleons (heavy, square rigged sailing ships). Suddenly, Europe, formerly on a technological par with India and China, dominated the waters. They crossed the Atlantic, reached America, and became world powers. A beautifully written account of the age conveys exactly how a country like Portugal could establish outposts from South America to the Pacific, how Christian fleets wrested control of the Mediterranean from the Ottoman Empire, and why the “invincible” Spanish armada met with disaster in its attempt to invade England. A vivid page-turner.